MRI Atlas of Central Nervous System Tumors

Brain Tumors in Children
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Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment. Active surveillance is closely watching a patient's condition but not giving any treatment unless there are changes in test results that show the condition is getting worse. Active surveillance may be used to avoid or delay the need for treatments such as radiation therapy or surgery , which can cause side effects or other problems.

During active surveillance, certain exams and tests are done on a regular schedule. Active surveillance may be used for very slow-growing tumors that do not cause symptoms. Surgery may be used to diagnose and treat adult brain and spinal cord tumors. Removing tumor tissue helps decrease pressure of the tumor on nearby parts of the brain. See the General Information section of this summary.

After the doctor removes all the cancer that can be seen at the time of the surgery, some patients may be given chemotherapy or radiation therapy after surgery to kill any cancer cells that are left. Treatment given after the surgery, to lower the risk that the cancer will come back, is called adjuvant therapy.

Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep them from growing. There are two types of radiation therapy:. Certain ways of giving radiation therapy can help keep radiation from damaging nearby healthy tissue. These types of radiation therapy include the following:. The way the radiation therapy is given depends on the type and grade of tumor and where it is in the brain or spinal cord.

External radiation therapy is used to treat adult central nervous system tumors.

Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. When chemotherapy is taken by mouth or injected into a vein or muscle, the drugs enter the bloodstream and can reach cancer cells throughout the body systemic chemotherapy. When chemotherapy is placed directly into the cerebrospinal fluid , an organ , or a body cavity such as the abdomen , the drugs mainly affect cancer cells in those areas regional chemotherapy.

Combination chemotherapy is treatment using more than one anticancer drug. To treat brain tumors, a wafer that dissolves may be used to deliver an anticancer drug directly to the brain tumor site after the tumor has been removed by surgery. The way the chemotherapy is given depends on the type and grade of tumor and where it is in the brain. Anticancer drugs given by mouth or vein to treat brain and spinal cord tumors cannot cross the blood-brain barrier and enter the fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord.

Instead, an anticancer drug is injected into the fluid-filled space to kill cancer cells there. This is called intrathecal chemotherapy. See Drugs Approved for Brain Tumors for more information. Targeted therapy is a type of treatment that uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack specific cancer cells without harming normal cells. Monoclonal antibody therapy is a type of targeted therapy that uses antibodies made in the laboratory from a single type of immune system cell.

These antibodies can identify substances on cancer cells or normal substances that may help cancer cells grow. The antibodies attach to the substances and kill the cancer cells, block their growth, or keep them from spreading. Monoclonal antibodies are given by infusion.

They may be used alone or to carry drugs, toxins , or radioactive material directly to cancer cells. Bevacizumab is a monoclonal antibody that binds to a protein called vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF and may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. Bevacizumab is used in the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma. Other types of targeted therapies are being studied for adult brain tumors, including tyrosine kinase inhibitors and new VEGF inhibitors. This therapy controls problems or side effects caused by the disease or its treatment and improves quality of life.

For brain tumors, supportive care includes drugs to control seizures and fluid buildup or swelling in the brain. This summary section refers to new treatments being studied in clinical trials, but it may not mention every new treatment being studied. Information about clinical trials is available from the NCI website. Proton beam radiation therapy is a type of high-energy, external radiation therapy that uses streams of protons small, positively-charged pieces of matter to make radiation.

This type of radiation kills tumor cells with little damage to nearby tissues.

Introduction to Neuroanatomy - Neurophysiology

It is used to treat cancers of the head, neck, and spine and organs such as the brain, eye, lung , and prostate. Proton beam radiation is different from x-ray radiation. Biologic therapy is a treatment that uses the patient's immune system to fight cancer.

Types of Benign Brain Tumors

Substances made by the body or made in a laboratory are used to boost, direct, or restore the body's natural defenses against cancer. This type of cancer treatment is also called biotherapy or immunotherapy. Biologic therapy is being studied for the treatment of some types of brain tumors.

Treatments may include the following:. For information about side effects caused by treatment for cancer, see our Side Effects page.

For some patients, taking part in a clinical trial may be the best treatment choice. Clinical trials are part of the cancer research process. Clinical trials are done to find out if new cancer treatments are safe and effective or better than the standard treatment. Many of today's standard treatments for cancer are based on earlier clinical trials. Patients who take part in a clinical trial may receive the standard treatment or be among the first to receive a new treatment. Patients who take part in clinical trials also help improve the way cancer will be treated in the future.

Even when clinical trials do not lead to effective new treatments, they often answer important questions and help move research forward. Some clinical trials only include patients who have not yet received treatment. Other trials test treatments for patients whose cancer has not gotten better.

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There are also clinical trials that test new ways to stop cancer from recurring coming back or reduce the side effects of cancer treatment. Clinical trials are taking place in many parts of the country. Clinical trials supported by other organizations can be found on the ClinicalTrials. Some of the tests that were done to diagnose the cancer or to find out the stage of the cancer may be repeated. Some tests will be repeated in order to see how well the treatment is working.

Imaging services at the OHSU Brain Institute

Decisions about whether to continue, change, or stop treatment may be based on the results of these tests. Some of the tests will continue to be done from time to time after treatment has ended. The results of these tests can show if your condition has changed or if the cancer has recurred come back. These tests are sometimes called follow-up tests or check-ups. The following tests and procedures may be used to check whether a brain tumor has come back after treatment:. For information about the treatments listed below, see the Treatment Option Overview section.

Treatment of brain stem gliomas may include the following:.

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MRI Atlas of Central Nervous System Tumors. Allison S. Smith. First published September 1, , DOI: Allison S. From the review of the Italian edition in "Neurosurgery": " The first chapter by a physicist from the Università dell'Aquila presents the scientific basis of the.

Use our clinical trial search to find NCI-supported cancer clinical trials that are accepting patients. You can search for trials based on the type of cancer, the age of the patient, and where the trials are being done. General information about clinical trials is also available.

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Treatment of pineal astrocytic tumors may include the following:. Treatment of pilocytic astrocytomas may include the following:. Treatment of diffuse astrocytomas may include the following:. Treatment of anaplastic astrocytomas may include the following:.

Imaging services at the OHSU Brain Institute

Treatment of glioblastomas may include the following:. Treatment of oligodendrogliomas may include the following:. Surgery followed by radiation therapy is the usual course of treatment.

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